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Can A Turtle Drown

Can a turtle drown?

Can a turtle drown? I know it sounds like a silly question – but sadly turtles can drown!

When watching our Chelonian friends swimming around gracefully, perfectly controlling their buoyancy and speed, it can be hard to imagine the risk that drowning poses to them.

The truth of the matter though is that drowning is one of the main causes of premature death in captive and wild turtles alike.

Sometimes, it is caused by natural incidents, a prime example being when female Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) drown during mating. This is due to being too exhausted to carry both themselves and a male to the surface to breathe.

Generally, however, the cause is man-made (no surprise there…). Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin), for example, were so severely impacted by drowning in crab traps that these must now be fitted with “BRD” s (Bycatch Reduction Devices) in some US states.

In captivity, drowning is usually down to an error in husbandry, such as a loose rock that becomes a trap. In this article, I’m going to explain how to tell if your turtle has died and what to do if you find it drowning.

Quick Reference Section

Before we get into it, let’s get the main turtle breathing myth out of the way: just because some turtles absorb oxygen through their skin whilst hibernating, it does not mean they can breathe underwater the rest of the time!

This is because the amount of oxygen a turtle requires for metabolic function – so everything from digestion to the basic brain activity that regulates their heartbeat – depends on their metabolic rate.

A higher metabolic rate equals higher oxygen requirements and vice-versa. During winter, the metabolic rate of hibernating species reduces to such a low level that just the oxygen they absorb through their skin and cloaca (see turtles breathe with their butts) is enough to keep them alive – albeit in a state of torpor.

When active, turtles respire through their lungs, which can absorb much more oxygen than their skin. During the spring and summer months, they take advantage of higher temperatures to raise their metabolic rate to a level where they can hunt, mate, and move fast enough to escape predators.

This of course means that they consume much more oxygen, and a turtle such as a Painted Turtle (Chrysemmys picta) can only go 20-30 minutes without breathing air. In a nutshell, any turtle that is not hibernating can drown if unable to breathe air.

How to tell if your turtle is dead

So, you’ve found your favourite turtle at the bottom of its tank, completely immobile. Could he/she be dead? Let’s not give-up hope straight away!

These animals are tough, seriously tough. I’ve read accounts of veterinarians nursing turtles back to full health after they suffered severe neurological damage from drowning.

This shows a biological resilience and healing capacity far beyond that of most humans. Let’s have a look at the steps you can take to determine if you turtle has indeed passed away from drowning:

1. If the turtle isn’t visibly trapped under something – check if it is sleeping.

Most pet turtles are diurnal and sleep at night, with many species doing so underwater. This is another time when their metabolic rate is lowered, but not to the extent of a hibernating animal.

A sleeping turtle can remain submerged for several hours with no harm done. Sometimes they even let their head slump down, making them appear dead.

If you are concerned, give the turtle a gentle tap or two on top of their shell with a pencil or stick. If the turtle moves, then it was only sleeping. If the turtle was visibly trapped, go straight to step 2.

2. Check if the turtle has the “tuck” reflex.

The most important reflex for a turtle is to tuck their head and legs in. This is because it protects their vulnerable body cavity from attack by predators.

So deeply instinctive is this reflex that even turtles on the brink of death will still make the effort to tuck in, or at least hold their head/legs up to some extent.

Your turtle may appear limp, but a light poke with a pencil eraser behind the ear or a back leg can stimulate this reflex in all but the most critical cases.

3. Record how long it remains immobile, once removed from the water

If your turtle is making no movement whatsoever, and its head/legs are hanging down limp for several hours then chances are it has passed.

Given how tough they are though, I would always give a turtle a minimum of 12 hrs in the warm and out of water before calling it.

If you have followed steps 1 and 2, and the answer to both questions is no, then your turtle may indeed be dead.

But what should you do after step 2, Just give up? Not at all. Before step 3, you should attempt to revive your friend, no matter how unlikely it may seem!

Take a look at the next segment to find out how.

How to save a drowning turtle

There’s a lot of advice floating around the internet on this topic, some of it excellent – some of it dangerous.

So, let’s clear things up once and for all! What I’m going to tell you now is the only method that has been proven to be successful, thanks to the fact that it uses turtle anatomy as a basis for getting water out of the lungs.

  1. When you find a turtle that is presumably drowned – remove it from water immediately and tilt its body forwards so that the head is lower than the tail, never turn it upside down.
  2. With one hand, place your second finger behind the jaw/skull on one side of the head and your thumb behind the jaw/skull on the other side. With your other hand, from above, use your thumb to push down gently on the lower jaw.

    If the animal is limp, the jaw should open easily, if not don’t force it! If the jaw opens, then some water may run out of the turtle’s mouth – this is a good start.
  3. Now, with the turtle still tilted forwards release its head, take both front legs and move them forwards, then gently backwards into the shell to make a pumping action.

    You may need two people to do this. What you’re doing here is mimicking the animals natural breathing pattern, forcing the lungs to compress by reducing space inside the shell.

    At this point – if the animal had drowned – water should be forced out of the lungs and out of its mouth. If this works for you then continue the exercise until water no longer comes out.

    Some turtles will take a breath immediately after this treatment, whereas others will take several hours.

During this time, please remember the following:

Never try this method unless the turtle is completely limp, otherwise chances are you will get bit!

Never ever try to give a turtle mouth to mouth. Turtles can carry Salmonella and Arizona bacteria, both of which make you incredibly ill.

Furthermore, their lungs are delicate, and you risk severely damaging them. If a vet wants to do it, then that is their decision, but it’s not for us to attempt.

Never try to force a straw into a turtle’s mouth to breath into. If the turtle resists opening its mouth, chances are it’s still alive.

Forcing a straw in or forcing the jaws open will likely result in damage to the inside of its mouth or jaw muscles.

In its weakened state, this could cause necrotising stomatitis to set in. if the animal begins to breathe, it will do so through the nostrils – a straw in the mouth will only cause more distress.

When you’ve done all that you can resuscitation-wise, move the turtle to a warm, dry box with some paper towels.

You want to aim for a temperature of 77-79F (25-26C). In its condition, the animal will not be able to thermoregulate, so this is important.

It also makes putting it under a basking light out of the question. Now on to Step 3 that I mentioned earlier: waiting to see if the turtle moves.

3. My turtle survived! Now What?

If the turtle survives, it is important to make an appointment with your vet, as pneumonia is common following drowning and antibiotics will be necessary to make sure it pulls through.

Even if your turtle appears to make a full recovery within minutes or hours – you must give it 24hrs out of water, book the vet appointment, and address any husbandry issue that caused it to drown in the first place.

How to prevent a turtle from drowning

Prevention is always better than a cure, and unless it is obvious how the turtle drowned, now is the time to do your detective work. Was the water too cold?

  • Was it difficult for the turtle to climb out and rest? Was the water at least twice as deep as the width of the turtle’s shell, in case the animal fell onto its back?
  • Or, for a hatchling, was the water so deep that it made coming to the surface tiring? Was the turtle bullied or attacked by others?
  • Did the turtle get tangled in plants or pump equipment?

These are the main questions that you need to answer to prevent this stressful occurrence from happening again.

I hope this article has helped understand why turtles drown and how to help them.

Thanks for reading and good luck!

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Monday 23rd of November 2020

Thank you so so much- I just saved my baby snapper. I noticed he was struggling to climb the rocks to get to Air. Then he really struggled so I got him out and he was limp. He had a slight And I mean slight Tuck reflex. That gave me hope. Before I found your page. I had him out and I did use a straw over is nostrils and breath two times. I was freaking out. Then he still remained limp head hanging. So I put him in a box and found your page. I quickly got a paper towel and sat his butt up higher then his head. Lots of water came out and came out of his mouth. He was still not moving so I couldn’t get his jaw down and didn’t want to force it like you said- I started moving his back and front legs. More water came out and then he pulled his back leg away. Now just 15 mins after he drown he is literally climbing out of the container and trying to get away from me.. Thank you Thank you Thank you. Wish there was a way to post a pic.


Friday 27th of November 2020

@Hannah, That's so awesome! It makes our efforts totally worth it when we hear that we made a difference. Thank you for sharing! Feel free to share the pic via email at [email protected]

Linda Gallagher

Sunday 6th of September 2020

An informative and well written article.


Thursday 11th of June 2020

my first turtle died about two-and -a half years ago.Sorry,if I am getting off topic.I now have an African sideneck turtle that I have had for going on two years ,and I am so desparate to be able to just to personally talk to someone over the phone.I know this sounds extreme, but I am rather a novice and am nervous about chatting online.If this is an unethical request I understand as I have been attempting to type this in for about the last near 10 minutes. thanks for your patients,sincerely, todd

diamond soto

Monday 25th of May 2020

hello plz help! so this morning I woke up to a everyday routine finding my turtle floating motionless in the water knowing he was just sleeping so I took him out not thinkin much and I put him in the sun for abt 10 mins went to check on him and seen that he didn't move at all so I was like what the heck?! so I took him out to check wat was wrong and he was completely limp I tried pulling his back foot a little to see if he would pull it in but nothing so I checked his breathing and nothing so I searched and i found this site I tried doing everything on the list but nothing is working but the thing is the head part where to open his jaw his head isn't completely lip I thing giving is a tiny pull to get it straight and its like his muscles in his neck are still working so I am confused but when I give the top of his head a little push watery mucas comes out so im like he had to of drowned but I just don't now how long he was in the water to drown hes a tiny bottle cap sized red eared slider and I need ur help asap plzz!!


Monday 23rd of November 2020

@diamond soto,

William Bruce

Tuesday 26th of May 2020

Hi there, I'm sorry to hear to about what's happened to your turtle! I would say that by the sounds of it he has drowned and passed away. Unfortunately, the very small size of your turtle will have made it less likely for him to pull through. It's always much more delicate with baby reptiles. Adult animals just contain more energy reserves to draw on and are tougher all-round. His jaw may be stiff because of rigor mortis setting in, rather than muscle movement. Give him the full 12hrs wait, but if there is still zero movement after that then I would give the poor little guy a burial. Will